Glossary

Last modified 22 Apr 2021 17:31 +02:00
Access Certification
Access certification helps with management of access rights. These rights also called privileges, role assignments, authorities or authorizations need to be assigned to the right users in the right systems at the right time. Access Certification means reviewing the settings such as assignments of roles to users to make sure that employees have accesses to the systems they need.
Alternative terms: Access Re-certification, Re-certification, Attestation,
Access Management
Access Management (AM) is a security discipline that provides access to authorised users to enter particular resources. It also prevents non-authorised users from accessing the resources. Thus the goal of Access Management is to unify the security mechanisms that take place when a user is accessing specific system or functionality. Single Sign-On (SSO) is sometimes considered to be a part of Access Management.
Alternative terms: AM,
Account
Data structure in a database, file or a similar data store that describes characteristics of a user of a particular system (resource). Accounts are used to control access of users to applications, databases and so on. In midPoint terminology, an account strictly means a data structure in source/target system (resource). Term "user" is used to describe a similar data structure in midPoint itself.
Alternative terms: User account,
See also: User,
Active Directory
An identity repository created by Microsoft that stores and arranges identity information. Based on this information, it provides access and permissions to users to enter particular resources and therefore improves organization’s security.
Authentication
In IT world, authentication is process of verifying user’s identity. Identifying the user is usually done by username and password. It is a process followed by authorisation when it is decided if user gets the access into the desired source or not.
Authorization
In IT world, authorisation is a process of giving user permission to enter and use specific resource. It is a step after authentication when user is identified usually thanks to his username and password. When these match with the data stored in a company’s database, user is given permission to access specific systems according to his roles and perform certain activities.
Cloud Computing
Internet-based computing when resources like storage, applications or servers are used by organizations or users via Internet. Data could be accessed any time from any place, without any installations and is stored and processed in third-party data centers which could be located anywhere in the world. Cloud computing is considered to lower organization’s costs by avoiding the need of purchasing servers as well as to speed up the processes with less maintenance needed. Due to data being centralized at one place, it is considered to be secure and easily shared across bigger amount of users.
ConnId
ConnId is an open source identity connector framework project. It originated from Identity Connector Framework (ICF) developed by Sun Microsystems in late 2000s. ConnId is an now an independent open source project, used by several identity management platforms.
Alternative terms: ConnId Framework,
See also: Identity Connector, Identity Connector Framework,
Delegated Administration
Type of administration where chosen users have administrator permissions. They can manage other users, create passwords for them, move them into groups, assign them roles, etc.
Entitlement
A privilege or right of access given to the user. An "entitlement" is a very overloaded term. It can be used to represent any kind of privilege, ranging from a very high-level business role to the finest filesystem permission in a specific system. In midPoint parlance, an Entitlement is a resource object representing privilege, access right, resource-side role, group or any similar concept. However, unlike account, the entitlement does not represent a user.
Alternative terms: privilege, access right,
Generic Synchronization
Advanced model of synchronization where not only users and accounts are synchronized, but also groups to roles, organizational units to groups, roles to ACLs and so on.
Governance, risk management and compliance
Governance, risk management and compliance (GRC) is a discipline that helps organizations to have more control over processes and be more effective. Governance is the set of decisions and actions by which individual processes as well as the whole organization are lead to achieve specific goals. Risk management identifies, predicts and prioritizes risks with aim to minimize them or avoid their negative influence on organizations' aims. Compliance means following certain rules, regulations or procedures. A GRC software facilitates this problematic by taking care of all three parts by one single solution. It is a very helpful tool for business executives, managers or IT directors. Thanks to it it is possible to define, enforce, audit and review policies responsible for the exchange of information between internal systems as well as between the external ones.
Alternative terms: GRC,
Identity Connector
Usually small and simple unit of code that connects to a remote system. The purpose of identity connector is to retrieve and manage identity information, such as information about user accounts, groups and organizational units. The connectors are usually written for and managed by a particular connector framework.
Alternative terms: Connector,
See also: Identity Connector Framework, ConnId,
Identity Connector Framework
Generally speaking, a programing framework (library) for creating and managing identity connectors. However, this rather generic term often refers to the Identity Connector Framework (ICF), originally developed by Sun Microsystem in 2000s. The ICF was releases as an open source project by Sun, only to be later abandoned after Sun-Oracle merger. The ICF was a base for several forks, including ConnId and OpenICF.
Alternative terms: Connector Framework, ICF,
See also: Identity Connector, ConnId,
Identity Deprovisioning
Identity deprovisioning is as well as identity provisioning a subfield of Identity and Access Management (IAM). It is an opposite to identity provisioning. While identity provisioning takes care of creating new accounts, determining the roles for individual users and their rights or making changes in them, deprovisioning works oppositely. When an employee leaves the company, his account is deactivated or deleted and he loses all the accesses to both internal and external systems. This way organization minimizes information theft and stays secure.
Alternative terms: Deprovisioning,
Identity Federation
Identity federation is a process of sharing user’s identification and personal data between multiple systems and between organizations, so the user doesn’t have to register for each organization separately and can seamlessly access systems in federated organizations.
Identity Governance
Business aspect of managing identities including business processes, rules, policies and organizational structures. Any complete solution for management of identities consists of two major parts – identity governance and identity management.
Alternative terms: Governance,
See also: Governance, risk management and compliance,
Identity Governance and Administration
Umbrella term covering identity management, identity governance, compliance, identity-based risk management and other aspects related to management of identities. Identity Governance and Administration (IGA) includes both the technical and business aspects of identity management.
Alternative terms: IGA,
See also: Identity Management, Identity Governance, Governance, risk management and compliance,
Identity Lifecycle
Set of identity stages from creation to its deactivation or deletion. It contains creation of an account, assignment of correct groups and permissions, setting and resetting passwords and in the end deactivation or deletion of the account.
See also: ,
Identity Management
Identity Management (IDM) is a process of managing identities and their accesses to specific resources in the cyberspace. It ensures appropriate access in appropriate time and helps to manage user accounts as well as to synchronize data.
Alternative terms: IDM,
See also: Access Management, Identity Lifecycle, Identity Governance and Administration,
Identity Provisioning
Subfield of Identity Management (IDM), concerned with technical aspects of creating user accounts, groups and other objects in target systems. It is a technology thanks to which many identity stores are synchronized, merged and maintained. Identity provisioning takes care of technical tasks during the whole user lifecycle - when new employee is hired, when his responsibilities change or he leaves the company (deprovisioning). It helps the organization to work more effectively as its goal is to automate as much as possible. The provisioning system usually takes information about employees from the Human Resource (HR) system. When new employee is recorded into HR system, this information is detected and pulled by the provisioning system. After that, it is processed to determine set of roles each user should have. These roles determine and create accounts users should have, so everything is ready for new users on the very first day. If a user is transferred to another department or his privileges change, similar processes happen again. If an employee leaves the company, identity provisioning systems makes sure all his accounts are closed.
Alternative terms: User provisioning, Provisioning, Fulfillment,
See also: Identity Management, Identity Lifecycle,
Identity Resource
In IAM field, a Resource is usually an network-accessible asset capable of managing identity information. In midPoint parlance, an Resource is a system that is either identity data source or provisioning target. IDM system (midPoint) is managing accounts in that system, feeding data from that system or doing any other combination of identity management operations. Identity resource should not be confused with "web resource" that is used by RESTful APIs.
Alternative terms: Provisioning Resource, Resource,
See also: Resource, Identity Connector,
Open Source
The meaning of this term is very simple - it is something people can wilfully modify according to their own needs or wishes. Firstly, this term was known in the context of software, which code was publicly exposed and available for modification. Later open source spread widely. There are open source projects, products, participations and many others. Many organizations and people choose open source software, hence it is considered to be more secured and grants people more control over it. This software can also be more stable as many other people may contribute their own ideas, correct it or improve it. Open source products are free and the creators usually charge other organizations for support or software services as implementation or deployment.
Alternative terms: OSS, Open Source Software, FOSS, Free and Open Source Software,
Organizational Structure
A hierarchical arrangement of authority, rights or duties in an organization. It determines the assignment, control or coordination of roles, responsibilities and power. A character of the organizational structure is highly dependant on the organization’s strategy and goals. The theme of organizational structure is closely linked to identity management. Organizing the company into this structure, assigning rights to individuals, working groups or project and controlling everything from one place – that are advantages that any high quality IDM solution is supposed to provide.
Password Management
Gives the organization an opportunity to meet the highest security standards thanks to the ability of having access to business systems and networks under control. Most of the employees usually pick just simple passwords and use same ones in multiple systems or applications. Password management helps to compose strong and unique passwords for both users and resources and ideally takes care of them during the whole user life cycle.
Alternative terms: Credential management,
Polystring
A built-in data type for polymorphic string maintaining extra values in addition to its original value. The extra values are derived from the original value automatically using a normalization code. PolyString supports national characters in strings. It contains both the original value (with national characters) and normalized value (without national characters). This can be used for transliteration of national characters in usernames. All the values are stored in the repository, therefore they can be used to look for the object. Search ignoring the difference in diacritics or search by transliterated value can be used even if the repository itself does not support such feature explicitly.
Product Architecture
Concept, design and description of the products part which are assigned into subsystems. It is also way how these subsystems interact with each other.
Role-Base Access Control
A mechanism for managing of user access to information systems based on a concept of roles. Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) is using roles to group privileges. Roles usually represent meaningful entities, such as job positions, organizational affiliations or similar business concepts. One of the basic assumptions of RBAC is that management of roles is much easier as management of individual entitlements. A form of RBAC is standardized in a series of NIST standards (INCITS 359-2012). RBAC is mostly concerned with using the roles to control user access to the system and other information assets. Role definitions are usually maintained using a somehow separate "Role Management" mechanisms.
Alternative terms: RBAC,
See also: Role, Entitlement, Role Management,
Repository
MidPoint internal database. It is used to store all internal midPoint data and vast majority of midPoint configuration.
Alternative terms: MidPoint repository,
Resource
In generic terms, a Resource is any information asset, system or a service that can be meaningfully used to obtain an information, or to initiate an action. Web resources are often used to access information across World Wide Web, e.g. in a form of RESTful interfaces. In IAM field, a Resource (Identity Resource) is usually an network-accessible asset capable of managing identity information. In midPoint parlance, a Resource is a system that is either identity data source or provisioning target.
Alternative terms: Information Resource, Data Resource,
See also: Identity Resource,
Role
Abstract concept that usually groups entitlements (privileges, access rights) in a single object. The purpose of grouping entitlements in roles is to make access control policies manageable, usually using Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) principles.
See also: Entitlement, Role-Base Access Control, Role Management,
Role Management
A process of managing role definitions. It usually includes creating role definitions, maintenance of role definitions, adapting to changed environment and decommissioning role definitions. Role management is concerned with role definitions only, in contrast with Role-Based Access Control (RBAC), which is mostly concerned in using the definitions to control the access.
Alternative terms: Role Modeling,
See also: Role, Role-Base Access Control,
Single Sign-On
Single sign-on (SSO) is an authentication process based on user logging into multiple systems with single username and password. It is used for systems that require authentication for each application while using the same credentials. SSO works on central service from where the user gains access to different applications without logging in again.
Alternative terms: SSO,
User
Generally speaking, a person that is using a computing system. In midPoint terminology, a user means a data structure in midPoint that describes a person. Similar data structure in source/target system (identity resource) is called an "account".
Alternative terms: MidPoint User,
See also: Account,