Model Versioning

This is a snapshot of the specification that was created during midPrivacy: provenance prototype project. For the latest development version of the document please look in Axiom workspace.

Axiom is using semantic versioning principles. As Axiom deals with data and not the code, the semantic versioning is slightly modified to suit the needs of data compatibility.

Each axiom data model has a version:

model example {
    namespace "";
    version "3.5";

Semantic Version Numbers

Recommended format for version number is:


All three parts are usually numeric, e.g. 4.2.1. The parts of version number have specific meaning:

  • Major version number indicates compatibility. Data models with the same major number must be compatible (with the exceptions specified below). Changing major version number indicates that the data model may no longer be compatible with its previous versions. Data created for a model with lower major version number may require significant modification or ever complete rewrite to fit the model with higher major version number. Models with major version number of zero (e.g. 0.1) are considered to be experimental (see below).

  • Minor version number indicate (compatible) revisions of the model. Axiom assumes backward compatibility (see below). Changing minor version number indicates that the data model has evolved in a compatible way. E.g. the model may be extended with new optional items. Data created for a model with lower minor version number should be directly usable in processors built for model with higher minor version number. However, the data may still need some modifications, e.g. removal or rewrite of deprecated or experimental items.

  • Patch version number indicate corrections. Changing patch version number indicates that the data model was updated, but there was no significant change in structure or meaning of the data. Data created for a model with lower patch version number must be directly usable in processors built for model with higher patch version number. The data must not require any modifications, with the exception of experimental items and corrections of previous incorrect behavior.

Version number that are zeros are optional. Therefore version 1.2 is to be considered the same as version 1.2.0. Minor and major version numbers must be numeric. It is strongly recommended for patch version number to be numeric too. However, it is allowed for it not to be numeric to account for hotfixes and other out-of-sequence patches.

In addition to that, version number may have optional suffix:


The suffix indicates that the model version is before or lower than the specified version. E.g. 1.2-SNAPSHOT means that this is a model that is just before version 1.2. Therefore it is considered to be after any 1.1 version, including 1.1.2 and 1.1.98761, but not yet reaching version 1.2. The suffix is usually used for development, milestone or pre-release versions. Ordering of the suffixes is not specified. Therefore it is not specified whether 1.2-M3 is before or after 1.2-RC2.

Backward Compatibility

Axiom requires data compatibility between minor versions of data model. This means that data created for earlier version of the model must be comprehensible for models of later versions. No data migration or transformation should be necessary.

However, there are few exceptions:

  • Experimental items: There is absolutely no compatibility or stability guarantees for experimental items. They can change in any way at any time. Including minor or patch versions.

  • Deprecated items: Deprecated items may be removed in a version that follows the version in which the item was deprecated. It is not yet decided whether deprecated items may be removed only in major versions or they can be removed in minor versions as well.

  • Bugfixes: Bugfixes in the code may require changes in the data model. It is recommended to make these changes compatible if it is possible and practical. However, Axiom does not mandate "compatible bugs" policy. That means that bugs may be fixed in minor and patch versions even if it means that compatibility (in a strict sense) is not maintained. The rationale is that if there is a bug in earlier version, that particular part of the data model was not working properly anyway. The data will need modification to fix the problem anyway. Therefore it is better to correct the model as soon as possible.

Versioned Dependencies

This has to be decided in later versions of Axiom.

TODO: use of version in import

Data Versioning

This has to be decided in later versions of Axiom.

TODO: specification of model version in the data

Data Model Evolution

Axiom is designed to support evolution of data models. There are special tools that support data model versioning and version-aware documentation.

Following markers can be applied to any modeling concept (type, item, etc.)



Version where the specified concept was first introduced.


Marked concept is deprecated. It still works, but it should not be used any more. Do not use it for any new configuration or data. Migrate all existing data to avoid use of deprecated concepts.


Version where the specified item became deprecated.


Marked concept is experimental. It is still being developed and it is unstable. It can change any time in any way, even in minor or patch versions. Experimental concepts usually evolve into ordinary concepts eventually. Experimental concepts may be removed at any time if they prove to be wrong or undesirable.


Version where it is planned to remove the concept.


Version where it is planned to change the concept in a non-compatible way.

Deprecation and Removal

This has to be decided in later versions of Axiom.

TODO: removal of deprecated elements

TODO: deprecation "contract" vs compatibility: when we can remove deprecated items? minor or major version?

Experimental Elements

Experimental concepts of the model can change in any way at any time. Such concepts are being developed. They are unstable. People that are using experimental parts of the model must be prepared to adapt the data after every change of the model, including minor and patch versions of the model.

Experimental concepts usually evolve into ordinary concepts eventually. But that may take several versions.

Experimental concepts may even be removed at any time if they prove to be wrong or undesirable. The developers are not required to provide any replacement functionality for removed experimental concepts.

Models with major version of zero (0) are considered to be completely experimental. Every concepts of such model should be considered experimental. There are no compatibility guarantees for models with zero major version number.