Expression and Mapping Variables

Last modified 12 Feb 2024 11:11 +01:00


There are many variables that can be used in midPoint expressions and mappings. Some variables are available in all the expressions, some are specific to some places. This page provides a summary of expression variables.

Variables are secondary input to a mapping. Variables provide additional data to a mapping, such as configuration information and overall context. Lot of information that may be useful for mapping expressions is usually provided, such as a complete focus (user), affected resource, assignment and role, system configuration object and so on.

Mapping sources are primary inputs for mapping evaluation. On the other hand, variables play a secondary role, providing additional data. Variables provide information about the surroundings of the mapping, about the environment in which the mapping evaluates. For example, inbound mapping usually takes information from account attribute on a source system (resource) to produce a value for user property. The account attribute is mapping source, and the user property is a target. However, mapping may need to consider other data as well, such as a definition of the resource or global system configuration. Mapping variables provide such additional information.

Sources and variables behave in a similar way, especially in mappings with scripting expressions. Mapping variables are provided as variables or parameters in the script code, in much the same way as sources are provided. Variable data may also be relativistic (delta-aware). E.g. when mapping is processing old value of the source, variable $focus will contain old version of the user. Later, when mapping is processing new value of the source, variable $focus will contain new version of the user. However, there are crucial differences between variables and sources. Changes in variable values may not trigger mapping re-evaluation and the deltas of variables are not reflected to mapping output in the same way as source deltas are.

Use of Variables

The variables are used in a native way that is dictated by the language in which the expression is written. Therefore, Groovy scripts will just use simple variable names:

Variables in Groovy
givenName + ' ' + familyName

while the path expressions use the dollar sign ($) to prefix the variables:

Variable in path expression

Accessing Object Items

Some variables used in the expressions are simple (scalar) values. However, MidPoint works mostly with objects, such as users, roles and resources. Therefore, many variables contain rich data structures representing the objects. It is important to know how access the items of the objects (properties, containers and references).

In scripting expressions the access to the properties is following the model given by object-oriented programming. E.g. in the Groovy and Python the properties are accessed in the same way as Java object properties:

Accessing property givenName in Groovy and Python

When going deeper in the item hierarchy take care about the null values. E.g. Groovy has a nice safe navigation operator (?.) that comes really handy here:

Safe navigation in Groovy

However, there is a special language that is used to reference items inside prism objects: item path. This language is designed to process the paths in a very efficient way, and it is used at many places in midPoint. The item path has a natural way how to reference the items inside a variable:

Item path

Mapping Variables vs Sources

The nature of variables is very similar to mapping sources. They have names, they are exposed is scripts, variables can even be relativistic. However, there are crucial differences:

  • Unlike sources, a change in variables will not trigger re-evaluation of the mapping.

  • While mapping will usually treat each value of a source separately, (e.g. execute expression for each value individually), there is no such functionality for variables. They are provided "as is", as (quasi) static values, usually containing entire object.

  • Sources have to be declared explicitly (except for inbound mappings). On the other hand, most variables are implicit, they are automatically provided in expressions. There is usually no need to explicitly declare a variable in mapping definition.

Sources should be used for:

  • Primary input that is likely to change. Such as family name, in an mapping that computes user’s full name.

  • Data for which we need an immediate reaction to the change. E.g. work position code from the HR system, which is used to determine automatic role assignments.

Variables should be used for:

  • Configuration data that do not change often. E.g. LDAP base context or organization name can be store in extension of system configuration object, which is available as a variable in all expressions.

  • Diagnotic purposes. E.g. use name of the resource instead of OID in log messages


Many mappings are executed in a context. E.g. an outbound mapping for an account assumes that mapping sources will be taken from the focus (usually user). Therefore we say that the account outbound mappings are executed in the context of the focus. The context acts as a default "root" for source path specification. Therefore, for outbound expressions there is a short-hand way to specify the sources:


This specification means the same as $focus/organization because this outbound expression is executed in the context of the focus, therefore $focus is the default root of all source paths.

List of Variables

Variable name Type Used in Alternative names Description



almost everywhere

Magic variable that contains the default input of the expression. In inbound mappings it is the value of the source attribute. In other expressions that have a single source this variable has the same value as the source.


subclasses of FocusType

inbound, outbound, object template, assignments

user (deprecated)

Represents focal object which is usually a user.



inbound, outbound, assigments (construction)

account, shadow (deprecated)

Represents projection in a form of shadow. This is usually the account.



inbound, outbound, assignments (construction)

Contains resource definition of the resource where the projection belongs.



in every mapping

Contains values add, modify or delete that describe the character of the object delta.




The user that is executing the operation - directly or indirectly. It may be currently logged-in user (for synchronous operations) or owner of the task (for asynchronous operations).




Contains system configuration object. The extension of system configuration may be used to hold system-wide configuration and constants.



object template, outbound

Numeric value describing the current iteration. It starts with 0 and increments on every iteration.



object template, outbound

String value describing the current iteration. It is usually suffix that is appended to the username or a similar "extension" of the value. It should have different value for every iteration. The actual value is determined by the iteration settings.



activation mappings

Set to true if the processed projection is legal, i.e. when it should exist. The projection is usually legal if there is an assignment for it. But the projection may also be legal without an assignment, e.g. if assignment policy enforcement is set to NONE.



activation mappings

Set to true if the processed projection is assigned. That means explicitly if there is a valid assignment for that projection.



activation mappings

Real administrativeStatus of the projection. This is used in activation mapping where the automatic input to the expression may contain a computed value compiled from administrativeStatus and validity constraint. This variable will contain the real administrative status that was not affected by the computation.



activation mappings

Set to true if the focus (e.g. user) exists. This variable behaves as the source, therefore correct vales describing the state before the operation and after the operation will be supplied as necessary. This is especially important for add and delete operations.




Contains a definition of the association target (entitlement). Used in expressions that need to do advanced logic on associations and entitlements.




ShadowType for the existing group in the resource. Used in the inbound script expression when there is a need to manage group membership.

In addition to these variables there are other special purpose variables. These are documented on a separate pages that document the mechanism. E.g. the variables specific to assignment processing are described in the Assignment Configuration page.

Alternative Variable Names and Missing Variables

Although midPoint has solid architectural background it is not a software where every little detail was defined by a big design upfront. MidPoint is continuously evolving. And also the expression and mapping code is evolving.

Some variable names have alternatives. E.g. the focus variable can be often referred to as user. This is legacy of the humble beginnings of midPoint when midPoint can only process users and accounts. This is a long time ago and midPoint is now very generic. Therefore, also the variable names refer to generic concepts. Alternative variable names are now considered DEPRECATED. Please, if you can try to avoid the use of the alternative names.

Due to midPoint history all the variables that are supposed to be universally available to all expressions may not be actually available in some cases. If you expect a variable to be available, and it is not, then you have probably found a bug. Please report the bug. We will fix that.

Was this page helpful?
Thanks for your feedback