Introduction to midPoint Query Language

Last modified 23 Apr 2024 11:59 +02:00

This document provides introduction to the midPoint Query Language. Some details are omitted, and there are some simplifications for clarity.

After completing this document, reader should be able to apply midPoint Query Language in configuration. We encourage to test the queries using the query playground, which provides convenient and interactive environment for experimenting with queries.

Language Description

The midPoint Query Language is designed to allow specification of a complex queries. Yet the basic structure of the language is relative simple and easy to understand.

The query is a combination of a filter with additional parts such as paging and sorting. It is the filter part that attracts most attention.

Simple filter usually take the usual form of item filterName value triple, where:


Item Path - specifies the searchable item on which should be the filter applied.


Name of filter to be used.


Value literal or Item Path which should be matched according filter specification. String needs to be enclosed in quotes (') or double-qoutes (")

Some examples of valid filters are:

  • fullName = "John Doe"

  • givenName startsWith "J"

  • activation/effectiveStatus = "enabled"

Item Path

The item on which data are filtered is specified by item path. In its simplest form it is a name of object property, or names of items and containers separated by slashes. Such as:

  • fullName

  • activation/administrativeStatus

  • attributes/uid

Filter Name

Item path is followed by filter name or its alias, which specifies which filtering condition should be used.

Comparison filters

Following tables summarizes common property filters:

Name Alias Description



Matches if any item is equal to value

not equal


Matches if item is different from value



Matches if item is smaller than value



Matches if item is smaller or equal to the value



Matches if item is greater than value



Matches if item is greater or equal to value

Examples of comparison filters on users
familyName = "Doe"

equals filter - All users with familyName Doe

name != "Administrator"

not equals filter - Everyone except administrator

activation/validTo < "2022-01-01"

less filter - All users which will not be valid after 2021

Comparison filters also supports item path on right side of filter. For example activation/validFrom > activation/validTo should return all objects with incorrectly set activations (activation start is after activation end).

Matching rules

Comparison filter can be even more specified by definition of matching rule in the filter. The syntax of matching rule in query is: filter[matchingRuleName]

Example of matching rules usage
givenName =[origIgnoreCase] "Adam"

query matches all 'Adam', 'adam' or 'ADAM' in givenName

emailAddress endsWith[stringIgnoreCase] ""

query matches user with email address ending with specific domain.

See different matching rules in the examples above. There are different matching rules defined for PolyStringType (givenName) and strings (emailAddress). List of all matching rules is defined in matching rules page.

String filters

Following table summarizes additional filters that can be applied on string and polystring values.

Name Description


Matches if item starts with specified string.


Matches string property if it contains specified substring.


Matches string property if it ends with specified substring.


Performs full text search. Item path must be dot (.)


Value is usually a string literal, enclosed in double quotes. However, value may take various forms. For example, it may be a path of another item, e.g. in case when the query compares two items. The value may be also quite complex.

The exact form of the value part of the filter depends on the operator and type of the value.

Querying values of different types

The exact syntax of queries for values of different types is described in the following table:

Type Query Note


extension/coreMember = true

Boolean values do not need quotes. Allowed values are true and false.


emailAddress endsWith ""

String values are enclosed in quotes (') or double quotes (").


givenName = 'Adam'

Values of PolystringType are enclosed in quotes (') or double quotes (").


extension/height > 170

Number values do not need quotes. Only common property filters (=,>, ..) are defined for number types.


extension/perfScore > 1.05

Number values do not need quotes. Only common property filters (=,>, ..) are defined for number types.


metadata/createTimestamp >= "2024-03-01"

DateTime values are enclosed in quotes (') or double quotes ("). It can be compared as dates or date and time - written in format of ISO-8601.

metadata/createTimestamp >= "2024-03-01T15:30:00"

While comparing time values. DateTime values entered without timezone are considered to be in the same timezone as running midPoint.

extension/empStartDate >= "2019-10-01" and extension/empStartDate < "2019-10-02"

As datetime values contain exact time value up to milliseconds you need to compare dates as intervals. See examples.


assignment/targetRef/@/name = "End user"

Object references are queries using matches filter or dereferencing operator @. See Advanced filters chapter below.

Logical Filters

Logical filters are used to combine several sub-filters into one filter or to negate filter.

givenName = "John" and familyName = "Doe"

There is a usual set of logic operators:

Table 1. Logical Operators
Operator Example Description


givenName = "John" and familyName = "Doe"

All subfilters must be true.


givenName = "Bill" or nickName = "Bill"

Any of the subfilters is true.


givenName not startsWith "J"
givenName != "John"

Logical negation. Not prefixes filter name (as seen in example).

You can use round brackets to group logical statements into more readable form.

familyName = "Doe" and (givenName = "John" or givenName ="Bill")

Object selection

Midpoint performs queries over defined set of objects. In GUI, the set is defined by actually opened view.

In configuration, the object type must be explicitly specified for the query. Not within the query itself. See the configuration snippet below. The query will select User with name "XYZ".

                            <q:text>name = "XYZ"</q:text>

Advanced filters

matches filter

matches filter operates on the container or structured value and specifies conditions that must be met by a single container value. It is in form of itemPath matches (subfilter), where subfilter (and item paths) are relative to the container, for example assignment/validTo < "2022-01-01" is same as assignment matches (validTo < "2022-01-01").

The subfilter is any supported filter, where paths are relative to container and allows us to specify multiple conditions (joined using Logical Filters), which must be met by container value.

Example matches filter:

activation matches (
  validFrom > "2022-01-01"
   and validTo <"2023-01-01"

For filters matching multiple properties of multi value containers (such as assignment). It is important to consider if we want to match a container where one container value meets all criteria, or these criteria could be met by multiple different container values.

If these multiple criteria must be met by one container value you must use matches.

The filter assignment/validFrom > "2022-01-01" and assignment/validTo <"2023-01-01" is different from assignment matches (validFrom > "2022-01-01" and validTo <"2023-01-01"). First will match user who has one assignment starting after 2022 and possible other assignment ending by 2023. The second filter with match user who has an assignment which starts in 2022 and expires before 2023.

Reference Filters

Reference filters allows to match on references themselves using matches filter on properties of referenced objects using dereferencing operator (@).

You can also perform inverse queries using referencedBy filter to search for object by properties of it’s referencer (e.g. search roles by properties of its members).

Reference matches filter

Reference itself is structured value, which contains target oid, target type and relationship type.

You can use matches filter with nested subfilters to target these properties of object reference:


Exact match of target oid (UUID as string). Example: assignment/targetRef matches (oid = efaf89f4-77e9-460b-abc2-0fbfd60d9167)


Matches any reference with specified relation (QName). Example: roleMembershipRef matches (relation = manager)


Matches any reference with specified target type (QName). Example: roleMembershipRef matches (targetType = OrgType)

It is possible to match on any combination of these three properties of reference, but only equals and and filter are supported.

roleMembershipRef matches (
  oid = "bc3f7659-e8d8-4f56-a647-2a352eead720"
  and relation = manager
  and targetType = OrgType


Dereferencing allows to write filter condition which is executed on referenced object. Dereferencing is done using @ special character in item path after reference, item path assignment/targetRef/@ points to object referenced by targetRef instead of targetRef itself. This allows you to continue path with properties of referenced objects such as assignment/targetRef/@/name - which means name of assigned object.

For example, this enables us to search for users with assigned role by role name instead of oid. (but it is executed a bit slower, since we need to dereference objects). assignment/targetRef/@/name = "Superuser" - matches any user who is directly assigned role of superuser.

To match also users, who are indirectly assigned role, you should use roleMembershipRef instead of assignment/targetRef.
If you need to match referenced object on multiple properties you should use matches filter.

Dereferencing inside reference matches filter

This feature is currently supported in midPoint native repository only

If user wants to match on properties of reference itself and also on properties of it’s target it is possible now, using dereferencing inside reference matches filter.

In order to match on target you can use dereferencing and matching: @ matches (…​).

Find all users, which are managers for roles with Business Role archetype
assignment/targetRef matches ( (1)
  targetType = RoleType (2)
  and relation = manager (3)
  and @ matches ( (4)
     archetypeRef/@/name = "Business Role" (5)
1 We are matching references in assignment/targetRef
2 Type of referenced target should be RoleType
3 Users relation to assigned role is manager
4 We dereference target and match on its properties
5 Name of role archetype should be Business Role. This is done by dereferencing archetypeRef using @ in item path.

referencedBy filter

referencedBy filter allows you to find object based on properties on objects, which reference it. Since object as whole is referenced the item path

In order to use referencedBy filter you must also specify type of objects, which references it, and path of object reference, which is used for reference (e.g. assignment/targetRef or inducement/targetRef)

The short query syntax is:

Find all roles which are assigned to Administrator
. referencedBy ( (1)
  @type = UserType (2)
  and @path = assignment/targetRef (3)
  and name = "Administrator" (4)
1 . referencedBy filter name
2 @type - required, special filter property which specified type of objects which should be considered in evaluation of filter. In this case we are interested in users.
3 @path - required, special filter property which specifies which Object reference should be used in filter, in this case we are interested in directly assigned roles (assignment/targetRef)
4 Filter which referencing object must match, in this case the name of referencing object must be Administrator.

ownedBy Filter

Filter is currently supported in midPoint native repository only

ownedBy filter allows for matching indexed containers based on properties of their parent (owning object or container).

The syntax is similar to referencedBy. ownedBy filter can only be applied on self path (.). The properties of ownedBy filter are:


(Required) Type of parent / owner.


(Optional) Name / location of container inside parent.


(Optional) Filter, to which parent needs to conform, filter is explicit element in XML/YAML/JSON. In midPoint query any filter which is not special property of ownedBy is automatically nested in filter.

Using searchContainers, find all inducements
. ownedBy ( @type = AbstractRoleType and @path = inducement)

Organization Filters

Organization filters are used to filter objects based on their organization membership. These filters operate on object as a whole, so item path must be . (the dot).

Name Value Description



Matches if object is part of organization unit or its subunits.



Matches if object is organization root. Filter does not have value.

. inOrg "00000000-1eam-0000-0000-111111111111"

All object which are members of specified organization

. isRoot

All roles and organization units which are organization tree roots.

Other filters

Name Value Description



Matches if item exists (has any value). Filter does not have value.


object type

Matches if object is of specified type. Usually used in combination with and filter for dereferenced objects, or it is needed to match on property defined in more specific type.

Query Examples

This chapter provides information and examples of queries in midPoint Query Language, mainly used in objects while configuration of midPoint itself.

Additional examples can be found in Advanced search - EXAMPLES.

Searching by Archetype Name

Search for reports with archetype specified by its name

midPoint Query
archetypeRef/@/name = "Report export task"

Where :

  • archetypeRef/@ - specifies that we are not matching reference value, but it’s target. In this case it is archetype.

Search by Assigned Role Name

midPoint Query
assignment/targetRef/@/name = "Role Name"


  • assignment/targetRef/@ -specifies that we are not matching reference value, but it’s target. In this case it is assigned role.

Users with account on specific resource

Search for users, which have account specified resource, with default intent.

midPoint Query
linkRef/@ matches (
  . type ShadowType
  and resourceRef matches (oid = "ff735c0a-21e3-11e8-a91a-df0065248d2d")
  and intent = "default"


  • linkRef/@ - we dereference target of linkRef, this behaves similar to SQL JOIN, allows us to filter on properties of the target

  • matches specifies subfilter for dereferenced target, filter which linkRef must match

    • . type ShadowType, we are searching for shadows on resource, this is necessary in order to be able to use shadow properties for filter

    • resourceRef matches (oid = "…​" ) - matches specific resource, to which shadow belongs

    • intent = "default" - matches shadow with default intent

All roles which are assigned to System users

midPoint Query using UserType as referencedBy
. referencedBy (
  @type = UserType
  and @path = assignment/targetRef
  and archetypeRef/@/name = "System user"
midPoint Query using AssignmentType for referencedBy
. referencedBy (
   @type = AssignmentType
   and @path = targetRef
   and . ownedBy (
      @type = UserType
      and @path = assignment
      and archetypeRef/@/name = "System user"

All roles, which are assigned using inducement

Filter is currently supported in midPoint native repository only
midPoint Query
. referencedBy (
  @type = AbstractRoleType
  and @path = inducement/targetRef

All roles, which are assigned to administrator using full text serach

midPoint Query
. referencedBy (
   @type = UserType
   and @path = roleMembershipRef
   and . fullText "administrator"

Search on assigned role using fullText

midPoint Query
assignment/targetRef/@ matches (
   . fullText "secret"
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