User Accesses

Last modified 09 May 2023 16:43 +02:00

To improve governance (IGA Reporting), especially in the context of Report Who Has Access to What and Why it is desirable to be able to get information not only about all (direct and indirect) assignments, but also about their source, that is assignment paths inducing those, and other data - why, when, reason, etc. This information should be available quickly without the need to reevaluate assignments for each object.

Current All direct/indirect assignments panel

There is a possibility to list all (direct and indirect) assignments using GUI. After opening details of a user, there is menu with Assignments → All direct/indirect assignments.


The content of the panel is computed on the fly, using preview changes functionality (with some limitation, but not important). It means that we cannot efficiently search in such indirect assignments. If the amount of the assignments is big it takes toooooo long to compute all of them. Some information has to be computed because they are not stored, e.g. why do I have this role?

Why the preview changes is used?

  • It provides information about the parent of the indirect assignments - but only the direct one, which is not enough.

  • It also shows constructions - but we may not need to see these for our purposes. Constructions are not covered by roleMembershipRef values, but linkRef can be used for that.

  • The view shows unsaved changes, like to-be assigned roles. This is not necessary for the "Accesses" view.

What are the gotchas of this view?

  • It shows the desired state even if it is not current, but does not inform user that save/recompute is needed to fix it. For example, membership refs may be stale or missing because of the validity changes in indirect inducements.

  • When the same indirect role is reached via multiple assignment paths it shows it once when it comes from one direct assignment, but two times when it comes from two different direct assignments. This is normalized to a single roleMembershipRef value, as expected.

Currently, if the object is recomputed and their induced roles change (inducement structure change, or inducement activation state) the change is not indicated as previewed change. Changes in roleMembershipRef are merely an operational item changes in audit. This may not be aligned with the admin’s perspective, as the user actually gets a new access, but this is not previewed.


We need to be able:

  • To access the information about all direct and indirect assignments faster, preferably directly from the repository.

  • We want to see the whole chain of roles inducing the indirect assignment. There may be multiple chains leading to the same indirect assignment, all should be visible.

  • Additional info may be added to the assignment, e.g. the case approving it, reason message, time, etc.

  • Seeing constructions is currently not required.

It is OK to see the data stored in the assignment holder object valid to the last recomputation.


  • Using existing roleMembershipRef and adding the information there.

    • Either reference itself would be extended.

    • Add the information to the reference as value metadata, this leaves the main reference schema untouched.

  • Using some additional structure (e.g. sidecar container).

Let’s go over pros and cons of these solutions.

Extending refs


  • Existing references can be used, no special-purposed sidecar container is necessary.

  • TODO: anything else?


  • Some kind of extension for the reference type needs to be developed. This can be done as specialized type of the reference (subtype). Impact on the code is unknown, the existing type would probably still work without any change.

  • Alternative is to make room in the existing ref type for additional info, e.g. extension container.

In general, we didn’t want to touch the reference type main structure, so this was not further persued.

Using metadata on refs


  • Existing references can be used, no special-purposed sidecar container is necessary.

  • Value metadata topic can be further developed and enhanced - possible synergies in the future.


  • Value metadata are experimental/prototype feature. May require further work on the metadata and their configuration, e.g. how to enable them only for some usages? The scope of the additional work is unclear.

  • If repository indexing is required later, this solution would need mechanisms to do it.

Using additional container (AKA "IGA-info")


  • No new technology is required, just another type of container - each value would represent "access".

  • Can be part of full object, can be indexed separately, can have its own table and be queryable.

  • Can also contain data for constructions. While it is different type of access it would still be covered by the same type of container (works for assginments).

  • Can easily represent both active and inactive assignments - not a major selling point now. (If references are used, a special relation could be used for inactive ones.)

  • Can also store any assignment evaluation information that is not specific to the final references. It is not clear how useful this can be; this would require one more container level.


  • It’s an additional container mirroring data (repeating) data from roleMembershipRef.

There is a couple of ways how we may need to search for the "accesses" data:

  • In the context of a single user, we want similar search capabilities like in Assignment Repository search.

    • Alternative would be in-memory search which was not enough for assignments - either because of search options or performance. If performance is in play for some deployment, there will be more "all assignments" than direct assignments.

  • Similarly, we may need to search across many users, e.g. accesses for users in some organization. This will be relevant for reporting - see the next section.

Currently the repository can search objects or containers:

  • We can search users filtered by roleMembershipRef values and their targets.

  • We could search for "access" containers ("IGA-info") - this roughly matches the possible "Accesses" panel or report, although report may require one row per distinct assignment path leading to each access (see the report section on that).

  • If metadata for roleMembershipRef is used, we would need to implement reference search, where the main select …​ from works with the reference table. This requires new capabilities on the repository level and also extension of the Query API.

    It has the same limitation as the container search for the report - one result row may still represent multiple rows in the IGA report.

Report engine considerations

Currently, our reports can produce one row for one row of query result.

For reasons shown above we may need to introduce a new capability - to generate multiple rows for each query result row. This appears in an example of the WWW report, otherwise the consumer of the report either does not have expected filter capabilities (e.g. in Excel) or needs to preprocess the report to multiply the lines with multi-value assignment path.

Generating multiple rows per query result row would allow:

  • To query users, go over their "accesses" data and generate one row not only per each access, but also for each distinct assignment path leading to that access.

  • To query access containers (or roleMembershipRefs when the reference search is implemented) and generate rows for each assignment path.

If the capability of generating more rows per query result row is added, either of the solutions above would produce the same report. However, the second solution may still be more attractive because it generates less new rows per row which affects the preview less (see problems lower).


  • How would this impact report preview and its paging? Is it acceptable to have a limited single page preview (filtering would still be possible)?

  • What should be the order of the generated rows? Implied internally somehow? This may not be so critical when the targeted tool (Excel) supports sorting.


Additional access information will be stored as value metadata on the roleMembershipRef values.

The structure of the additional information (TBD) can be the same whether it’s placed in metadata or in a non-metadata container. The mechanism of creating the data in the code when the assignments are evaluated is also the same.

This solution requires the following:

  • Revisiting value metadata, probably adding a way how to enable them only for a specific purpose (here for "accesses" information).

  • Adding repository reference search:

    • Query API needs to be enhanced to allow queries for reference type.

      • How to identify the type of ref? Can we use something like object type + path similar to the referencedBy filter?

      • API changes are needed, as currently the definition for the query root assumes container.

  • Report generation mechanism to generate one or more rows for a single query result row.

Other notes and questions

  • For linkRef (which is object reference as well) we might also want to know why was the account created (e.g. application told so) - where the valueMetadata with parent role/origin/chain might be relevant.

  • Storing "IGA-info" should be switchable, e.g. off by default.

  • When to recompute the roleMembershipRef? There is no change proposed for this at this moment.

IGA reporting follow-up notes

  • Currently, we’re not considering any searchability of IGA-info, so all the questions for the report must be provided by other things - e.g. membership refs, their targets, etc.

    • A CSV report, which may be refreshed regularly, e.g. once a day, is enough. If further search - based on the detail info like assignment paths or parents - is needed, it can be open in Excel, etc.

  • How to reasonably display cases when many applications are induced by a role? One row per application.

  • What if application is induced by many roles? What if application is induced by the same role, but via multiple assignment paths?

    • On screen, multiple assignment paths can be shown in one table line, possibly shortened.

    • For report/spreadsheet one line per each possible chain is preferred.

    • What about idempotent roles computation vs assignment chain display?

  • What of "why" is available now - at least theoretically in the runtime? What is stored already, e.g. metadata of an assignment contains its creator/modifier, is that usable? How to get ticket/request identification - aren’t these external information, how would that get into MP?

    • originMappingName on assignment/metadata can be used for things like "rule name",

    • various additional info can be obtained from assignment/extension items,

    • also various requestor/approver comments are available on the assignment.

  • How to hide non-important/technical roles?

    • There always should be a way to show unfiltered view, e.g. for administrator.

    • (Mato) There should be something called "user access" showing just objects of specified types/archetypes. This can be built-in, based on our new archetypes by default - but customizable.

  • What about meta-roles?

    • Not relevant, we don’t want to see it, this is how it works in current All direct/indirect assignments.

  • What about assigned since date?

    • Assignment can be used for this, but it is up to the engineer to choose the right info (created, validFrom, extension attribute). This can be used in report, not for IGA-info - we do not want the content of this info customizable (not yet anyway).

What information should be provided in UI (Martin’s notes)

UI details to the "fast" view mentioned above and also other views that should be displayed.

What views to display

  • View: All direct and indirect assignments

    • view targeted to technical users: IDM administrators / operators / support

    • providing answer to question: "What does the user have assigned and why ?"

  • View: User access

    • view targeted for business users: end users, managers, …

    • providing answer to question: "Where does the user have access and why?"

    • this view is the default filter to display business data only

    • may be displayed as a view in assignments or additional tab in user (useful for self-service)

Additional filtering of business data:

  • Engineer should be able to define:

    • Additional views displaying direct and indirect assignments but displaying specific archetypes only

    • concept working in 4.6 for direct assignments. Just extend also for views with indirect assignments.

This should not be in default configuration - but available for definition by engineer - some examples and documentation how to display this. I can prepare the documentation and examples. This concept may be used to display also user’s membership in different ORGs - even indirectly assigned.

View: All direct and indirect assignments

  • Target archetype (icon)

  • Target name

  • Source

    • direct → for direct assignments

    • <direct assignment that gave this object> - for indirect assignments

    • this column can provide the answer to the "..why ?" part. Answers the question: "By which assignment was this object assigned ?"

    • may be multivalue - object is assigned by multiple sources.

  • Assignment path → for indirect assignments only

    • full assignment path - in names of objects

    • may be multivalue - one line = one assignment path

    • example: Business role X → App. role A → Application A

  • Activation

    • for direct assignments (it may be also for indirect, but this must be computed)

  • Additional columns for direct assignments possible

    • e.g: since the

    • activation

Assignment paths and sources may be multivalue. If there are many assignment paths, the view should display only few lines and add info (e.g. "…") that there are more components in the path or in the source.
Engineer should have option to add additional columns. When engineer wants to add columns by configuration, he should be able to identify whether the column will be filled for direct or indirect assignments or both.
  • all direct and indirect assignments stored in user object

    • metaroles should be excluded

  • multiple assignments:

    • direct assignments of the same object should be displayed as individual lines

    • direct and indirect assignments of the same object should be displayed as individual lines

    • all indirect assignments of the same object should be aggregated to one line.

  • by target name

  • by type of assigned object or by archetype (ordering by first column)

  • by source

  • search by target name

    • simulate AXIOM search: targetRef/@/name contains <string> (operation like search in all users view)

    • do not use searching by OID - this is complicated and not easy to use

  • we do not need to search by assignment path

    • if somebody wants to search by assignment path - this could be achieved by full text search (optionally)

View: User access


Same as for "All direct and indirect assignments" view.

  • only assigned services

    • both direct or indirect assignments

  • multiple assignments:

    • direct assignments of the same object should be displayed as individual lines

    • direct and indirect assignments of the same object should be displayed as individual lines

    • all indirect assignments of the same object should be aggregated to one line.

Engineer should be able to define filtering to specific archetypes only and exclude assignments of specific individual objects from the view (both direct and indirect assignments) - by specific value of an object attribute (e.g. application has attribute - excludeFromAccessView)

Same as for "All direct and indirect assignments" view.


Same as for "All direct and indirect assignments" view.

Implementation notes


  • We decided to place the info under provenance inside ValueMetadataType.

    • We will introduce a new item under provenance, we will see whether there is any synergy with the two existing later.

    • We need to add stuff like assignmentPath to the information (that would also contain the direct assignment - first in each path).

  • Extending existing provenance items were considered too, but we don’t plan it now:

    • It is hardly a mappingSpec although that one has assignmentId (poor cousin of future assignment path).

    • Is it acquisition? Let’s consider some items:

      • originRef should represent origin of the data - which is the direct assignment (what MP object would represent that concept?), or its origin? Is this necessary?

      • resourceRef probably useless, even for construction this is not the target resource, but the source of the construction.

      • actorRef actor adding the direct assignment? actor who caused recompute leading to adding this roleMembershipRef?

The structure:

  • let’s try reusing AssignmentPath(Segment)Type, we will containerize it

    • order of segments via segmentOrder to avoid confusion with inducement order

    • see also MappingSpecificationType which mentiones assignment paths in comments (Axiom version), but it’s not the same

  • for each ref, do we want one "accesses blob" or one value-metadata value per assignment path ("chain")?

    • The latter is preferred, where assignment path would be the key for MidpointProvenanceEquivalenceStrategy.

    • The question is whether all membership refs aren’t currently replaced as a whole anyway which would simplify it.

  • How to make this feature toggleable?

    • In sysconfig under roleManagement new boolean accessesMetadataEnabled.

Code points of interest:

  • com.evolveum.midpoint.prism.Item#addRespectingMetadataAndCloning

WWW report - metadata columns specification

Which metadata attributes should be included in WWW report (aka: report Who Has Access to What and Why).

This is business report, so we should include only attributes that are providing business value. Additionaly, as this should be the first IGA report, it should not be very complex. Therefore some data (certification information) are not included in this dfault report.

IDM engineer may include also other metadata attributes - in new report or by modification of the default one delivered with midPoint.

Which elements of MetadataType should be included in the report ?

Element Business meaning Note



We don’t need information about request. Too much info for the report.







Since when is this assigned



Who assigned the access

If possible, format as <fullName (name)>









How was the access assigned - GUI, reconciliation, import…

Should be displayed in "business language" - not URI



Which task did the assignment

This is technical information, so removal may be considered. If used, the name of the task should be displayed.



If the assignment was modified, when it happened

Additional info about modification of the object.



Who modified the assignment









How was the access modified

See notes to createChannel



Which task modified the assignment



This report is not the best place for this information



May be good, but too much information for default report









Technical info. No meaning in business report.

The metadata elements should be displayed also for indirect assignments.
Example use-case

User was assigned business role BR1 on Jan 01. He realized that he does not have access to app ABC, so he got also application role ABC:User assigned on Jan 30. On Apr 15 Helpdesk team induced role ABC:User to role BR1.
User has role ABC:User assigned directly since Jan 31 and indirectly via BR1 since Apr 15.

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